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Title: Role of nutrition in toxic injury
Authors: Lal, Shayam Bala
Singh, Bhoopendra
Gulati, Kavita
Seth, S D
Issue Date: Feb-1999
Publisher: NISCAIR-CSIR, India
Abstract: The importance of nutrition in protecting the living organism against the potentially lethal effects of reactive oxygen species and toxic environmental chemicals has recently been realized. This new perspective has prompted re-evaluation of the food constituents of human diet from the point of view of their nutritional adequacy, deficiency and toxicity. The biological antioxidant defense system is an integrated array of enzymes, antioxidants and free radical scavengers. These include glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, together with the antioxidant vitamins C, E and A. The individual components of this system get utilized in various physiological process and for chemoprotection and therefore require replenishment from the diet. Other components of the diet like carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are important for maintaining the levels of various enzymes required in body's defense system providing protection against carcinogens. However, the emerging newer concepts focus on the role of trace elements and other dietary components in antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms. Trace elements like Iron, zinc magnesium, selenium, copper, and manganese are some of the elements involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms. Inadequate intake of these nutrients has been associated with ischemic heart disease, arthritis, stroke and cancer, where pathogenic role of free radicals is suggested. Further the importance of diet in the prevention of chemical induced toxicity can not be undetermined. Recent reports on the role of bioflavonoids as antioxidents and their potential use to reduce the risks of coronary heart disease and cancer in human beings have opened a new arena for future research. Induction of the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes by food pyrolysis, mutagens, alcohol and fasting, on the other hand is reported to contribute to chemical toxicity and carcinogenecity. Certain chemicals moieties in the food are mutagenic and carcinogenic.
Page(s): 109-116
ISSN: 0975-1009 (Online); 0019-5189 (Print)
Appears in Collections:IJEB Vol.37(02) [February 1999]

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